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Alt 02-2008   #1
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Standart HFCS larin insan sagligi uzerindeki etkisi

Arkadaslar bana ait bir arastirma makalesini sizinle paylasmak istiyorum. Nutrition dersi icin hazirlamis oldugum bu makalede bircok gida urununde kullanilan HFCS larin insan ****bolizmasindaki etkisini anlatmaya calistim.
Umazim yazi ingilizce oldugundan dolayi forumdan kaldirilmaz.

Negative Effects of High Fructose Corn Syrup on Health

About Fructose and High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)
Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. Honey, tree fruits, berries, melons, and some root vegetables, such as beets, sweet potatoes, parsnips, and onions, contain fructose, usually in combination with sucrose and glucose. Fructose is also derived from the digestion of sucrose, a disaccharide consisting of glucose and fructose that is broken down by glycoside hydrolase enzymes during digestion. Fructose is the sweetest naturally occurring sugar, estimated to be twice as sweet as sucrose(4).
High Fructose Corn Syrup(HFCS) is a corn syrup that has undergo enzymatic processing in order to increase its fructose content and is then mixed with pure corn syrup(100% glucose) to reach its final form(3).
The production process of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) was developed in the 1970’s. Use of HFCS grew rapidly from less than 3 million tones in 1980’s to almost 8 million tones in 1995(6).
There are three types of HFCS
• HFCS 90 in the production of HFCS 55
• HFCS 55 soft drinks
• HFCS 42 variety of other food, including baked food (4).
High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is quite commonly found in beverages, prepackaged goods, such as breakfast cereals and baked foods. Because, sugar from corn (mostly HFCS) began to gain popularity as a sweetener because it was cheaper to produce and, storage and transportation of it is easier (1).
Fructose consumption has largely increased over the past few decades most likely as a result of this increased use of HFCS. The consumption of HFCS increased more than 1000% between 1970 and 1990. In 1970, individual consumption of fructose was only 227g/year; however in 1997 it increased to 28kg/year (2).

Possible Health Problems
Loading high fructose corn syrup into increasingly larger portions of soda and processed food has packed more calories into us and more money into food processing companies, say nutritionists and food activists. But some health experts argue that the issue is bigger than mere calories. The theory goes like this: The body processes the fructose in high fructose corn syrup differently than it does old-fashioned cane or beet sugar, which in turn alters the way ****bolic-regulating hormones function. It also forces the liver to kick more fat out into the bloodstream. The end result is that our bodies are essentially tricked into wanting to eat more and at the same time, we are storing more fat (8).

Obesity and Lipogenesis
The increased use of High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) causes the rapid increase in obesity. The digestion, absorption, ****bolism of fructose favors de Novo Lipogenesis. Diets specifically high in fructose have been shown to contribute to a ****bolic disturbance in animal model resulting in weight gain, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose is converted to fatty acids by the liver at a great rate than is glucose. It is recommended that only 40 g of extra sugars should be added to a standard 2000 calorie a day diet. But the amount of HFCS found in only one 330 ml soft drink equals this total proportion of daily intake (5).
Genetic factors play an important role in the development of obesity. However, the rapidity with which the current epidemic of obesity has descended on the United States and many other countries makes environmental factors the more likely explanation(5).

From a public health perspective, the key question is whether there are modifiable environmental agents that could have triggered this epidemic and that might be altered. Several environmental agents, including reduced levels of physical activity, a decrease in smoking, increased portion size, eating outside the home and at fast-food restaurants, and changes in the types of food that are ingested, have been suggested. The increased intakes of soft drinks and other sweetened beverages have led to increases in total caloric and fructose consumption that are important contributors to the current epidemic of obesity (5).

Insulin Resistance, Type 2 Diabetes
In the past, fructose was considered beneficial to diabetics because it is absorbed only 40 percent as quickly as glucose and causes only a modest rise in blood sugar. However, research on other hormonal factors suggests that fructose actually promotes disease more readily than glucose. Glucose is ****bolized in every cell in the body but all fructose must be ****bolized in the liver. The livers of test animals fed large amounts of fructose develop fatty deposits and cirrhosis, similar to problems that develop in the livers of alcoholics (7).
Pure fructose contains no enzymes, vitamins or minerals and robs the body of its micronutrient treasures in order to assimilate itself for physiological use. While naturally occurring sugars, as well as sucrose, contain fructose bound to other sugars, high fructose corn syrup contains a good deal of "free" or unbound fructose. Research indicates that this free fructose interferes with the heart’s use of key minerals like magnesium, copper and chromium. Among other consequences, HFCS has been implicated in elevated blood cholesterol levels and the creation of blood clots. It has been found to inhibit the action of white blood cells so that they are unable to defend the body against harmful foreign invaders (7).
Studies on the Maillard reaction indicate that fructose may contribute to diabetic complications more readily than glucose. The Maillard reaction is a browning reaction that occurs when compounds are exposed to various sugars. Fructose browns food seven times faster than glucose, resulting in a decrease in protein quality and a toxicity of protein in the body. This is due to the loss of amino acid residues and decreased protein digestibility. Maillard products can inhibit the uptake and ****bolism of free amino acids and other nutrients such as zinc, and some advanced Maillard products have mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties. The Maillard reactions between proteins and fructose, glucose, and other sugars may play a role in aging and in some clinical complications of diabetes (6).
Fructose reduces the affinity of insulin for its receptor, which is the hallmark of type-2 diabetes. This is the first step for glucose to enter a cell and be ****bolized. As a result, the body needs to pump out more insulin to handle the same amount of glucose (6).
In the past, diets in saturated fats have been shown to induce weight gain, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia in humans and animals. Recent researches suggest that a high intake of refined carbohydrates may also increase the risk of insulin resistance. The general increases in consumption of calories, and refined carbohydrates and fructose, is clear and correlates positively with an alarming increase in ****bolic syndrome. When total energy intake was accounted for, corn syrup (HFCS) was positively associated with type 2 diabetes (1).
Fructose is readily absorbed and rapidly ****bolized by human liver. For thousands of years humans consumed fructose amounting to 16–20 grams per day, largely from fresh fruits. Westernization of diets has resulted in significant increases in added fructose, leading to typical daily consumptions amounting to 85-100 grams of fructose per day. The exposure of the liver to such large quantities of fructose leads to rapid stimulation of lipogenesis and TG accumulation, which in turn contributes to reduced insulin sensitivity and hepatic insulin resistance/glucose intolerance. These negative effects of fructose are the reason that fructose ****bolism has gained recent research attention. Interestingly, small catalytic quantities of fructose can have positive effects, and actually decrease the glycemic response to glucose loads, and improve glucose tolerance. These effects are also observed without any changes in insulin responses and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and TG levels . In 1976, sugar substitutes such as fructose had been found to offer the 'advantage' of a 'better' utilization in conditions of limited insulin production. Fructose had a smaller influence on serum insulin concentrations than glucose, and no influence on plasma glucose levels. At that time, this evidence was considered to support fructose as a positive treatment for diabetic control. In 1986 HFCS were even proposed as a low-cost substitute for fructose in diabetic management. Based on these early observations, nutritive sweeteners were considered safe by the Food and Drug Administration, although, it has now been found that intakes above 25% of total energy consumed will cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms. Even with the early positive results, researchers noticed accompanying "unfavorable" influences of these so-called diabetic sugars on obesity and weight gain. Certain ****bolic differences exist between glucose and fructose, and the results that were once thought favorable, proved exacerbating to insulin resistance and obesity. In a study comparing normal and diabetic patients, glycemic effects of HFCS were compared to glucose. The negative results of HFCS on immunoreactive insulin, glycemic effect, and immunoreactive C-peptide did not support its use as a substitute for glucose in diabetic patients (1).

Increase in VLDL, LDL
There is growing evidence that the insulin resistant state developed upon fructose feeding is also associated with stimulated hepatic VLDL secretion. Several animal models have been employed to examine the mechanisms of this induction of VLDL, and the subsequent increases in plasma TG observed. Mechanistic studies based on carbohydrate versus lipid ****bolism have recently become important because carbohydrate induced hypertriglyceridemia shares a ****bolic basis with high fat diet induced endogenous hypertriglycerolemia. The similarly induced dyslipidemias would therefore have the same or similar atherogenic risks [97]. Carbohydrate induced hypertriglycerolemia results from a combination of both TG overproduction, and inadequate TG clearance [97,98]. These disease processes and the hepatic steatosis caused by stimulated lipogenesis have been illustrated by fructose fed animal models showing how aberrant leptin signaling, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia are related to TG. induction Excess VLDL secretion has been shown to deliver
increased fatty acids and TG to muscle and other tissues. Increases in VLDL secretion can then lead to chain reactions in other lipoproteins and lipids, such as low density lipoprotein (LDL) (2).
Fructose is readily absorbed from the diet and rapidly ****bolized principally in the liver. Fructose can provide carbon atoms for both the glycerol and the acyl portions of triglyceride. Fructose is thus a highly efficient inducer of de novo lipogenesis. High concentrations of fructose can serve as a relatively unregulated source of acetyl CoA. In contrast to glucose, dietary fructose does NOT stimulate insulin or leptin (which are both important regulators of energy intake and body adiposity). Stimulated triglyceride synthesis is likely to lead to hepatic accumulation of triglyceride, which has been shown to reduce hepatic insulin sensitivity, as well as increased formation of VLDL particles due to higher substrate availability, increased apoB stability, and higher MTP, the critical factor in VLDL assembly (1).

Other Effects on Body
Furthermore, calorically sweetened beverages may enhance caloric over-consumption (5). The long-term negative effects can include changes in digestion, absorption, plasma hormone levels, appetite, and hepatic ****bolism, leading to development of insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, and inevitably cardiovascular disease. When consumed in excess of dietary glucose, the liver cannot convert all of the excess fructose in the system and it may be malabsorbed. The portion that escapes conversion may be thrown out in the urine. Diarrhea can be a consequence (1).
In studies with rats, fructose consistently produces higher kidney calcium concentrations than glucose. Fructose generally induces greater urinary concentrations of phosphorus and magnesium and lowered urinary pH compared with glucose (7).
In humans, fructose feeding leads to mineral losses, especially higher fecal excretions of iron and magnesium, than did subjects fed sucrose. Iron, magnesium, calcium, and zinc balances tended to be more negative during the fructose-feeding period as compared to balances during the sucrose-feeding period (7).

Experimental Result, Observations
Increasingly, children seem to be choosing mass produced, 'tasty' artificial juices and sodas Over healthier alternatives.Because;
a) Society is constantly bombarded by huge million-dollar advertising campaigns for soft drinks, offered extra-extra-large serving sizes with free refills, and surrounded by ubiquitous access to soft drink vending machines even in schools,
b) children's standard drinks to accompany meals, and especially fast food, have become soft drinks.
In a study of females aged 12 to 19 years,milk intake decreased by 36%, whereas sodas and fruit drink consumption increased to nearly double from the 1970s to the mid 1990s. From 1994 to 1996, it was found that even though intake of soda, juices, tea, and alcoholic beverages remained constant, the steady decrease of milk intake continued (1).

The main diet issues involve a general lack of education and/or understanding of the implications with recent consumption patterns. Despite education programs to prevent obesity and diabetes worldwide, there has been little focus on the reduction of fructose and HFCS in beverages (1).
There is an urgent need for increased public awareness of the risks associated with high fructose consumption and greater efforts should be made to curb the supplementation of packaged foods with high fructose additives (9).
Additional Information
In Trkiye, the production of corn syrup quota was determined as 10% in 2001, however the quota is raised to 15% because of the decision of cabinet. However in USA, the quota is 2%, in German 8,9per thousand, in France 4,9per thousand (10).
Fructose consumption is alarmingly increasing and it becomes a big contributor to the obesity and insulin resistant diabetes in both children and adults. In past, people consumed very low amount of fructose in their daily lives form fresh fruits and other foods. Because of these reason human body came to fit actively ****bolizing the glucose with limited in take of fructose. Because of the aforesaid reasons, in the past few decades, the production consequently consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) increased. High amount of fructose disturb the carbohydrate ****bolism in the liver which causes important consequences. These ****bolic disturbances appear to underline the induction of insulin resistance commonly with obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, high in VLDL, LDL and other important body problems. Westernization of diet is the most important reason of these illnesses. Such kind of diet not contain only fructose, contain also high amount of fat and cholesterol. In conclusion, emerging the environment about such consequences, they should be an urgent need for increasing awareness of such problems related to HFCS and government must curb the producers which use HFCS in their food products.


(1)H. Basciano, L. Federico and K. Adeli, Fructose, Insulin resistance, and ****bolic dyslipidemia, 10.1186/1743-7075-2-5,2005

(2)M. C. Gannon and F. Q. Nuttall, Control of blood glucose in type 2 diabetes without weight loss by modification of diet composition, 10.1186/1743-7075-3-16, 2006

(3) E. A. Borges da Silva, A. A. Ulson de Souza, S. G. U. de Souza, A. E. Rodrigues, Analysis of the high-fructose syrup production using reactive SMB technology, Chemical Engineering Journal 118 (2006) 167–181


(5) G. A. Bray, S. J. Nielsen, and B. M. Popkinrole, Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a in the epidemic of obesity, Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:537– 543

Konu Mustafa86 tarafndan (02-2008 Saat 07:02 PM ) deitirilmitir..
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